云飞 2015-03-21 11:09 发布 | 29272个查看 / 0个回复

读经方法旧约各卷书经文如何指向耶稣基督与祂的救恩(英文资料)

圣经是一个整体,向我们讲述一个完整的救赎故事。作为已经拥有新约圣经的今天信徒,我们如何从整体视角来理解局部的经文,使我们读经更有味道?(抱歉资料是英文版的)

资料来源:ESV圣经研究版 http://www.esvbible.org/

History of Salvation in the Old Testament: Preparing the Way for Christ

(See Overview of the Bible, for a fuller explanation of the “History of Salvation.” The notes in this feature are identified by single verses only, for easy cross-reference with the main study notes on Bible-text pages. However, many of these notes apply to more than just the one verse by which they are identified. Directions for the reader to “see note on” another verse refer only to notes within this feature, not to the main study notes on Bible-text pages.)

Genesis  创世记

After God creates a world of fruitfulness and blessing, Adam’s fall disrupts the harmony. God purposes to renew fruitfulness and blessing through the offspring of the woman (3:15). Christ is the ultimate offspring (Gal. 3:16) who brings climactic victory (Heb. 2:14–15). Genesis traces the beginning of a line of godly offspring, through Seth, Enoch, Noah, and then God’s choice of Abraham and his offspring (Gen. 12:2–3, 7; 13:14–17; 15:4–5; 17:1–14; 18:18; 22:16–18; 26:2–5; 28:13–15).

1:1 God’s act of creation is the foundation for the entire biblical history. A considerable number of passages refer back to creation (e.g., Psalms 8; 104; 148John 1:1–31 Cor. 8:6Col. 1:15–17Heb. 1:2; 11:31 John 1:5–7). All the rest of the Bible depends indirectly on it.

1:3 God speaks, and it is done. The centrality of the word of God in the acts of creation anticipates the deeper truth given in John 1:1, that the second person of the Trinity is the Word.

1:3 God created physical light. The Bible also says that God is light in a moral and spiritual sense (1 John 1:5). By God’s design, the physical aspects of creation can serve as vehicles for developing themes about God and his salvation. Jesus is “the light of the world” (John 8:12).

1:26 The divine Son is “the image of the invisible God” (Col. 1:15). Man was created in a way that reflects the imaging relation among the persons of the Trinity. The redemption of man from the fall and sin includes re-creation (2 Cor. 5:17), his being “created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness,” in the image of Christ (Eph. 4:24).

1:28 God created a permanent order of creation. But he also intended a development in which man would play a central role. Because Adam failed and fell into sin, Christ came as the last Adam to achieve dominion (see 1 Cor. 15:22, 45–49Eph. 1:21–22).

1:31 Sin is a later intrusion into an originally good creation. It is not inherent in the world, and so it can be completely removed when God achieves his purposes in the consummation (Rev. 22:3–5).

2:2 God rested from his works of creation. But he continues to work in providence and (after sin enters) in redemption. See John 5:17. As human beings we look forward to entering into God’s consummation rest (Heb. 4:4, 9–11).

2:3 Man imitates the pattern of God’s work and rest in the sabbath cycle of days (Ex. 20:8–11) and years (Leviticus 25). The sabbath points forward to the rest that Christ achieved with his resurrection and ascension (Heb. 10:12–13), and which will be fully manifested in the consummation (Rev. 22:4–5).

2:7 God has life in himself and imparts life to his creatures. The impartation of physical life anticipates the impartation of spiritual life (John 1:4; see 1 Cor. 15:45). Life is in the Son (John 5:21, 261 John 5:12) and comes to us through the Spirit (John 3:5).

2:8 The garden of Eden and paradise reminds us of what we have lost (Joel 2:3) but also of what will yet be renewed in the world to come (Isa. 51:3Rev. 22:1–3).

2:9 After the fall, the tree of life was barred to man (3:24). But God promises fruitfulness to those who know him (Ps. 1:3) and to those who obtain wisdom (Prov. 3:18). Eternal life is obtained in Christ (John 5:24), and free access to the tree of life reappears in the consummation (Rev. 22:2).

2:24 Divorce is a deviation from God’s design in creation (Matt. 19:4). The marriage relationship anticipates the relation of Christ to the church (Eph. 5:22–33). See Overview of the Bible, concerning Christ as the last Adam.

3:1 Later Scripture indicates that Satan worked through the serpent (Isa. 27:1Rev. 12:9). He was defeated by Christ’s work on the cross (Heb. 2:14–15), and will be utterly destroyed in the events leading to the consummation (Rev. 20:7–10).

3:4 Throughout history Satan is engaged in deceiving (2 Thess. 2:9–12Rev. 12:9) and casting doubt on the word of God. When tempted by Satan, Christ rejected his lies (Matt. 4:1–11). In spite of Satan’s attacks, the word of God will stand forever (Ps. 119:89Matt. 24:35).

3:8 God appears and judges Adam and Eve, anticipating the final day of judgment in Christ (John 5:22). Because of the sacrificial work of Christ, judgment can be tempered with mercy on those who belong to Christ.

3:15 The offspring of the woman who inflicts decisive defeat on the serpent is Christ (Heb. 2:14). But earlier in time, within the OT, there are partial defeats through people who prefigure Christ and foreshadow the final conflict. (See Overview of the Bible.)

3:24 When Christ opens the way to eternal life, the barring of the way to life is removed (John 14:6Heb. 10:19–22Rev. 22:2).

4:26 The line of Seth appears to be a more godly line, corresponding to the promise of the offspring of the woman (3:15), while Cain and his descendants correspond more to the offspring of the serpent. The line of Seth ultimately leads to Christ (Luke 3:38).

5:5 Death is a repeated, grim occurrence, reminding us of the reality of the curse (2:17; 3:19) and the need for God in mercy to provide a final remedy for death through Christ (John 11:25–26Rev. 1:18; 21:4).

5:24 Enoch’s walk with God makes him an early example of faith (Heb. 11:5–6), and his being taken by God without dying anticipates the eternal resurrection life that Christ gives (Rom. 8:11).

6:9 For Noah’s faith, see Heb. 11:7. Noah by his righteousness saved not only himself but his family, prefiguring the righteousness of Christ by which Christ saved his spiritual family.

6:18 God promises in a covenant (see Overview of the Bible) to save Noah, prefiguring the new covenant in Christ by which we receive eternal salvation (1 Cor. 11:25Heb. 10:15–18).

7:23 The flood brought a whole world to an end (2 Pet. 2:5; 3:6). It prefigures the final judgment, which ends the present heavens and earth and brings a new world (Rev. 21:1). God preserves those who belong to Christ, the final Noah.

8:13 The emerging of a new world prefigures the creation of the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–4; see 2 Pet. 3:5–7).

9:7 God repeats the command given to man in 1:28. Noah is a new head or representative for humanity, prefiguring Christ, who will be the final head of the new humanity (1 Cor. 15:45–48). All those descending from Noah are privileged for his sake.

9:11 In a covenant God guarantees to all mankind blessings that come through Noah. He shows mercy, based on sacrifice (8:21), pointing forward ultimately to the mercy that comes through the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:12).

10:32 All the nations of the world are encompassed in the plan of God. He chooses Abram alone (12:1–3), but eventually “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him” (18:18; see 12:3Rev. 5:9).

11:4 Babel, and later Babylon (Revelation 17–18), is the quintessential worldly city, where man tries to exalt himself to the position of a god. It contrasts with the holy city of God’s people, whose name is made great not through their prideful self-exaltation but by the power of God (Gen. 12:2Rev. 21:2).

12:1 God will give Abram a great name, in contrast to the self-exalting desire in Babel (11:4). The choice of Abram narrows down the line of the offspring of the woman (3:15) to Abram’s offspring. Ultimately, Abraham is great as a progenitor of Christ (Rom. 9:5).

12:2 God’s promise is reiterated and expanded as time passes (13:14–17; 15:4–5; 17:1–14; 18:18; 22:16–18; 26:2–5; 28:13–15; 35:10–12).

12:3 The inclusion of all the families of the earth anticipates the spread of the gospel and salvation in Christ to the ends of the earth (Matt. 28:18–20Acts 1:8Gal. 3:8).

12:7 God’s promise has a short-range fulfillment when the nation of Israel conquers Canaan under Joshua (Josh. 21:43; see 1 Kings 4:21). Ultimately the offspring narrows down to Christ (Gal. 3:16), whose dominion extends not only over the land of Canaan but over all the world (Matt. 28:18). The land of Canaan prefigures the eternal inheritance of the world in Christ (Heb. 4:1–11; 11:10, 13–16). In Christ believers are the offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:7, 29).

13:15 God confirms and expands his promise to Abram (see notes on 12:112:2and 12:7).

14:18 Melchizedek, a priest and king, prefigures Christ’s priesthood (Heb. 7:1–8:6).

15:6 Abram’s trust in God is the model for Christians’ trust in God’s promises in Christ (Gal. 3:6–9). Righteousness is “counted” or reckoned, not on the basis of our achievement, but because in faith we look to God who supplies righteousness in Christ (Rom. 4:5–92 Cor. 5:21Gal. 3:6).

15:17 The flame, symbolizing God, passes between the pieces, symbolizing that God himself will bear the penalty if the promise is broken. Ultimately, Christ bears the penalty for our disobedience.

16:10 Because of the line of chosen offspring, leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16), some blessings overflow and extend even to collateral descendants like Ishmael.

16:13 Hagar perceives that the Lord has spoken to her, which implies that “the angel of the Lord” is divine. Some think that this is a preincarnate appearance of Christ. Christ is the final, divine messenger of the covenant (Mal. 3:1) who is anticipated in this scene.

17:4 The multiplication of the nation of Israel represents the proximate fulfillment of God’s promise (Ex. 1:7). Those who place their trust in Christ, the offspring of Abraham (Gal. 3:16), now become sons of Abraham (Gal. 3:6–9), so that ultimately all the multitude of the saved (Rev. 5:9) have Abraham as father (Rom. 4:17–18).

17:10 Circumcision symbolizes the covenant relation to God, which demands holiness. It is fulfilled in Christ’s purification of believers (Col. 2:11).

18:2 Two of the “men” turn out to be angels (19:1), while the third is the Lord (18:22). The appearance of God in human form anticipates the incarnation of the Son (John 1:1–18).

18:10 The miraculous birth of a son according to the power of God’s word anticipates later instances where God’s word overcomes a “dead” womb and brings new life: 25:21; 30:221 Sam. 1:20Isa. 54:1. The pattern culminates in the virgin birth of Christ (Luke 1:35), and has relevance for understanding God’s sovereignty in election (Rom. 9:8–9).

18:24 Abraham’s limited intercession fails to spare Sodom. Christ’s perfect intercession always succeeds (Heb. 7:23–25).

19:16 Though Lot is a mixed character who makes compromises, God saves him and his family, prefiguring his mercy in eternal salvation (2 Pet. 2:7–9).

19:24 The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah prefigures eternal judgment (2 Pet. 2:6, 9–10Rev. 14:10–11).

20:6 Even though Abraham misuses her, God in mercy preserves Sarah, who embodies the line of holy offspring leading to Christ.

21:2 The miraculous birth of Isaac, the special offspring of promise, prefigures the coming birth of Christ, in accordance with all the promises of God.

21:4 Circumcision represents purification and holiness, anticipating the purity of Christ (Luke 2:21; 3:22;Col. 2:11; see Gen. 17:10).

21:10 The distinction between the miraculous son of promise and the son from human planning prefigures the distinction between the church and natural descendants of Abraham (Gal. 4:30).

22:3 Abraham demonstrates the reality of his faith in action, serving as a model for how our good works demonstrate our faith (James 2:18–24).

22:8 Isaac comes near to being sacrificed, but God provides a substitute. Ultimately God will sacrifice his only Son, who dies in our place (Gal. 3:13, 16). The ram prefigures the sacrifice of Christ.

22:16 Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son leads to great blessing to his offspring. God’s sacrifice of his only Son leads to even greater blessings to Christ’s spiritual offspring (Rom. 5:8–11Heb. 6:13–14).

23:19 Abraham takes care about Sarah’s burial, expressing thereby his faith in God’s promise that he will possess the land. The fact that the land is not theirs during Sarah’s or Abraham’s earthly life points forward to the resurrection of the dead (Heb. 11:13–16).

24:4 The marriage of Isaac is important, because he is the offspring of promise through whose offspring the world will be blessed. The special provision of a wife for Isaac prefigures God’s offspring of promise, Christ, receiving a bride, the church (Rev. 19:7).

25:23 Jacob the chosen one and Esau the one not chosen prefigure the age-long struggle between the chosen people and their adversaries (Mal. 1:2–3Rom. 9:10–13). The principle applies in the OT to Israel and in the NT to the church.

26:28 Abimelech’s respect for Isaac prefigures the salvation of the nations through Abraham’s offspring in Christ (18:18).

27:35 God carries out his sovereign purpose of confirming Jacob as the chosen line of the offspring of Abraham (12:7; 25:23), in spite of Isaac’s intent to bless Esau and in spite of the sinfulness in Jacob’s deceit.

28:12 The opening of access to heaven anticipates Christ, who opens access permanently (John 1:51Heb. 10:19–20).

29:25 Even in the midst of trickery God sovereignly works to give Jacob wives, through whom he will fulfill the promise to multiply Abraham’s offspring (15:5).

30:1 In the midst of sordid competition between Leah and Rachel, God sovereignly fulfills the first stage of his promise to multiply Abraham’s offspring (12:2; 15:5; 17:5; 26:4; 28:14).

31:24 God protects Jacob, fulfilling his earlier promise (28:13–15) and protecting the line of chosen offspring leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16).

32:24 God appears in human form, anticipating the incarnation of Christ.

33:4 God delivers Jacob and his family from a feared attack by Esau, fulfilling his promise to Jacob and his offspring (28:14–15) and protecting the offspring leading to Christ.

34:9 Though Simeon and Levi are later criticized for their deceit and violence (49:5–7), God uses them in preserving the line of holy offspring from intermarriage (see Deut. 7:3), thus protecting the line until the coming of Christ the final offspring (Gal. 3:16).

35:10 God confirms earlier promises to Abraham and his offspring (see note on 12:2).

36:1 The record of collateral, rejected offspring (25:23) is given before continuing with the record of the line leading to Christ (Gal. 3:16).

37:7 Prophetic dreams concerning God’s plan for the offspring of promise foreshadow the final prophetic unveiling of God’s purposes through Christ.

37:20 Joseph, who is to be the key deliverer of God’s people, has a scrape with death, and is finally glorified (41:41), foreshadowing the suffering and glorification of Christ the final deliverer.

38:29 In spite of unrighteous sexual behavior by several males, God brings about his own purpose of continuing the offspring leading to Christ (Matt. 1:3).

39:9 Joseph, in contrast to Adam and Eve, firmly rejected temptation, anticipating Christ’s rejection of temptation (Matt. 4:1–11; 16:23).

40:23 The trials of Joseph, testing his faith, anticipate the trials that come to Christ as man (Matt. 4:1–11), and that come to disciples of Christ (Acts 14:221 Thess. 3:4).

41:36 Through prophetic gifts given by God, Joseph is able to save from famine not only Jacob and his family, but Egypt. He foreshadows Christ, whose prophetic teaching and suffering bring eternal salvation both to Jews and to Gentiles. (See 18:18.)

42:9 God works according to his plan, which was already revealed in Joseph’s dreams (37:5–9). God cares for the line of offspring leading to Christ (3:15Gal. 3:16).

43:9 Judah offers himself as a substitute, prefiguring the substitution of Christ the offspring of Judah.

44:33 See note on 43:9.

44:29 Salvation through Joseph includes not only rescue from famine, but a change of heart in the brothers, compared to their earlier envy and violence toward Joseph. The change prefigures the change of heart that Christ works through the Spirit (John 3:3–8).

45:15 Reconciliation springs from forgiveness, prefiguring God’s reconciliation and forgiveness in Christ.

46:4 God delivers the entire family from famine and promises permanent care, anticipating both the exodus from Egypt (Exodus 1–14) and the subsequent generations leading to Christ.

47:6 Through Joseph’s deliverance abundant blessings come to his family, prefiguring the blessings of deliverance in Christ.

48:5 The transformation of one tribe (Joseph) into two further illustrates the fruitfulness of blessing to the line of offspring that God has chosen and blessed.

49:10 At this early point God already reveals that through Judah will come a line of kings, leading finally to Christ the great, eternal king (Matt. 1:1–16).

50:20 God uses even evil to work out his good purposes, foreshadowing the time when he will bring the supreme good, namely, eternal salvation, out of the wicked actions of the men who condemned and crucified Jesus (Acts 2:23; 4:25–28).

50:24 God’s promises stand firm through generations (12:7; 15:13–14). His faithfulness is expressed climactically in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20).

Exodus

Through Moses God redeems his people from slavery in Egypt, prefiguring Christ’s eternal redemption of his people from slavery to sin.

1:7 The multiplication of the people fulfills God’s promise to multiply Abraham’s descendants (Gen. 15:5) and to bless the world through them (Gen. 18:18), specifically through Christ (Gal. 3:8).

1:13 Bitter suffering precedes release, symbolizing that suffering under sin precedes the deliverance from sin in Christ.

2:10 Moses, the special agent for God’s deliverance, has his life preserved, anticipating the rescue of baby Jesus from Herod’s murders (Matt. 2:13).

2:15 God brings deliverance through his power and in his way, through the weakness of the cross, not through merely human impulses for justice (1 Cor. 1:25).

3:5 The overwhelming holiness of the presence of God anticipates the presence of God in Christ’s incarnation.

3:12 The commissioning of Moses by God’s word and God’s power prefigures the commissioning of Christ for his work (Matt. 3:17).

3:14 The name “I am” anticipates the “I am” sayings of Jesus (see John 8:58), which show his deity.

4:13 Moses’ reluctance points forward ultimately to the need for a divine deliverer, Jesus Christ.

5:2 Pharaoh’s refusal to recognize the true God prefigures the resistance of people to Christ’s claims, even though miracles supported his claims.

6:8 The mention of the patriarchs (see Gen. 12:7) shows the faithfulness of God and the continuity of his purposes over time. This faithfulness comes to ultimate fruition with the sending of the Son.

7:17 The plagues on Egypt foreshadow the plagues preceding the second coming (Rev. 11:6).

9:16 God uses even those who resist his will, prefiguring his use of Herod and Pilate (Acts 2:23).

10:4 The locusts prefigure the judgments associated with the day of the Lord (Joel 1–2Rev. 9:1–11).

11:5 The plague of death reminds us that the wages of sin is death (Rom. 6:23). Only through the death of God’s Son are we delivered.

12:6 Deliverance through the blood of a lamb prefigures the coming of the Lamb of God to obtain final salvation through his death (John 1:29).

12:46 Because Jesus is the fulfillment of the Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7), it is fitting that none of Jesus’ bones were broken (John 19:36).

13:3 We now look back to the final Passover in which Christ brought eternal salvation from sin (1 Cor. 5:7), and we remember it in the Lord’s Supper (1 Cor. 11:23–26).

14:19 God’s special presence in the cloud prefigures his presence in Christ, who is our protection and refuge against all the attacks of Satan.

14:22 The people go down symbolically into death and come up alive, prefiguring the reception of resurrection life through Christ (see Rom. 6:41 Cor. 10:2).

14:30 The death of Egyptians prefigures that final destruction of all God’s enemies (Rev. 20:15; 21:8).

15:2 Praise for God’s salvation anticipates the songs of praise for Christ’s final work of salvation (Rev. 5:9–14; 15:3).

15:17 The conquest of Canaan prefigures the entrance into the final sanctuary of God’s presence, mediated by Christ (Heb. 10:19–20Rev. 21:22).

16:4 Manna prefigures Christ the bread of heaven, who gives eternal life (John 6:31–35).

16:18 The sufficiency of the manna prefigures the sufficiency of Christ to meet every need of his people (Phil. 4:19).

17:6 God providing water after striking the rock prefigures Christ, who is stricken to provide the water of eternal life (John 4:14; 19:34).

18:18 The limitations of Moses prefigure the need for Christ, the divine judge, and Christ’s appointment of shepherds under him (elders) to carry out his will (1 Pet. 5:1–4).

19:6 The privileges of Israel prefigure the higher privileges of the NT church (1 Pet. 2:9–10), won through Christ’s redemption (Heb. 10:10).

19:12 The threat of death illustrates the impossibility of sinful people approaching a holy God. The impossibility is overcome only through the sacrifice and mediation of Christ (Heb. 10:19–20).

20:2 Christians now obey God’s commandments because he has brought us out of sin and death (Rom. 13:9Col. 1:13Rev. 1:5–6).

20:11 The celebration of the Sabbath looks back to creation (see notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3), back to redemption from Egyptian slavery (Deut. 5:15), and forward to final rest through faith in Christ (Heb. 4:1–11).

20:13 The Ten Commandments are deepened through Jesus’ teaching (Matt. 5:17–48) and fulfilled in Jesus’ perfect righteousness (Heb. 4:15; 5:9).

21:2 The ordinances concerning slavery anticipate our being freed from slavery to sin and becoming slaves to Christ (Rom. 6:20–221 Cor. 7:22).

21:12 The principles of retribution and restitution, though they hedge in sin and give partial remedies, do not bring a perfect kingdom, but look forward to the perfection of the kingdom of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7Matt. 5:38–48).

23:1 The truthfulness of God, coming to its climax in Christ, is to be reflected in truthfulness displayed to fellow human beings, and the compassion and justice of God is to be reflected in treatment of fellow humans.

24:8 Consecration through blood prefigures consecration through the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:18–26).

24:11 Fellowship with God prefigures our seeing God in the face of Jesus Christ (John 14:9). Christians enjoy fellowship with God in Christ, who is the food of eternal life (John 6:53–58), symbolized in the Lord’s Supper and consummated in the final feast (Rev. 19:9; 22:4).

25:8 The making of a dwelling place anticipates Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 6) and prefigures God’s dwelling with humanity in Christ (Matt. 1:23John 2:19–21Rev. 21:22), in the church (1 Cor. 3:16Eph. 2:19–22), in the individual Christian (1 Cor. 6:19), and in the consummation (Rev. 21:3, 22–27). The actual construction of the tabernacle is described in Exodus 36–39.

25:22 God’s meeting with and speaking to his people prefigures his intimacy and communion with believers in Christ (John 15:4).

25:30 Bread expressing fellowship with God prefigures Jesus feeding us as the bread of life (John 6:35, 52–58).

25:37 The provision of light in the presence of God prefigures Jesus as the light of the world (John 1:4–9; 3:19–21; 8:12; 9:5).

25:40 The tabernacle is a shadow or copy of the heavenly, final dwelling of God, as indicated in Heb. 8:5. The symbolism in the tabernacle therefore consistently prefigures Christ and the church (see note on Ex. 25:8).

26:33 The curtain bars access to all except the specially qualified high priest (Leviticus 16), prefiguring that only Christ can open the way to God (Heb. 9:7–14; 10:20).

27:1 Access to God is only through sacrifice on the altar (Lev. 4:10), prefiguring the necessity of the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:12–14).

27:9 The hangings of the court erect one more barrier to approaching God, thereby emphasizing his holiness. See note on 26:33.

28:2 The external holiness and beauty of the priest prefigures the perfect holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:6).

29:1 The priests, being sinful, need atoning sacrifice for themselves, contrasting with the perfection of Christ’s priesthood (Heb. 7:26–28).

30:1 Burning incense represents intercessory prayer (Rev. 5:8), prefiguring Christ’s intercession (Heb. 7:25).

30:16 Atonement money prefigures Christ’s buying us at the price of his own blood (1 Pet. 1:18–19).

30:20 Washing prefigures cleansing from sin in Christ (Zech. 13:11 Cor. 6:11).

31:3 The giving of the Spirit prefigures Christ’s building the church through the Spirit (Matt. 16:181 Cor. 14:12Eph. 2:20–22). The building of the church is based on Christ’s resurrection through the Spirit (John 2:19–21Rom. 8:11). See note on 1 Kings 7:14.

32:12 Moses’ intercession prefigures the intercessory prayers of Christ (Heb. 7:25).

32:32 Moses offers himself as a substitute, prefiguring Christ’s substitutionary death (Heb. 10:10).

33:19 God as sovereign works his will in election (Rom. 9:15).

33:22 Moses as sinful must be shielded from the full weight of God’s holiness, prefiguring Christ’s shielding us from the wrath of God (Rom. 5:9–11).

34:9 God’s mercy prefigures the mercy given in Christ (Rom. 4:8).

35:21 The willingness of the people prefigures the willingness of Christ’s self-giving sacrifice (John 10:18), and then the willingness that he works in us to be used by God (Rom. 12:12 Cor. 8:9–15; 9:7, 13–15).

36:10 The construction exactly according to God’s design (26:1–6; see 39:42) prefigures the construction of the church according to God’s design (Eph. 4:11–16) and the construction of the new world (Rev. 21:2).

37:1 The construction matches 25:10–22. See note on 25:22.

37:10 The construction matches 25:23–30. See note on 25:30.

37:17 The construction matches 25:31–39. See note on 25:37.

37:25 The construction matches 30:1–10. See note on 30:1.

38:1 The construction matches 27:1–8. See note on 27:1.

38:8 The construction matches 30:17–21. See note on 30:20.

38:9 The construction matches 27:9–19. See note on 27:9.

39:1 The garments match 28:1–43. See note on 28:2.

40:34 See the parallel in 1 Kings 8:10–11. The filling of the tent with God’s glory prefigures the fullness of the Spirit in Christ (Matt. 3:16–17John 1:14; 3:34–35) and in the church (Acts 2:3–41 Cor. 3:16).

Leviticus

The requirement of holiness points to the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26–28). The sacrifices prefigure the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 10:1–10).

1:9 The offering of the whole sacrifice to God prefigures Christ’s giving of his whole self (Heb. 10:5–10). The whole sacrifice ascends in smoke, prefiguring the ascension of Christ (Heb. 9:24).

2:1 The offering of the fruitfulness of the land prefigures the honor given to God through the fruitfulness of Christ (John 13:31–321 Cor. 15:23).

3:1 Most of the peace offering is eaten by the worshiper (7:15–16), signifying fellowship with and blessing from God. It is fulfilled in Christ’s reconciliation and giving himself as food (John 6:52–57Rom. 5:9–11).

4:2 The promise of forgiveness is fulfilled in Christ’s giving himself as a sacrifice for sin (Rom. 8:3Heb. 10:1–10).

4:12 The position outside the camp prefigures Christ’s crucifixion outside Jerusalem (Heb. 13:11–14).

5:1 Sins of falsehood and sins against holiness are forgiven in anticipation of Christ’s work in holiness (Heb. 9:23–26; 10:11–20).

6:13 The continuation of the altar fire indicates the insufficiency of repeated sacrifices (Heb. 10:1–4), in contrast to the sufficiency of Christ’s sacrifice (Heb. 10:10) and intercession (Heb. 7:25).

7:20 Fellowship with God and with the things of God requires holiness, prefiguring the holiness of Christ purifying us (Heb. 10:10; 12:14).

8:1 For the instructions for consecration, see Exodus 29.

8:30 Consecration through oil and blood prefigures purification from sin through the Spirit and the blood of Christ (Heb. 9:19–261 Pet. 1:2).

9:24 God’s acceptance of the offering prefigures his acceptance of the sacrifice of Christ (Heb. 9:13–14).

10:2 The rejection of human inventions prefigures the fact that Christ is the only way to God (John 14:6;Acts 4:12).

11:45 Separation from uncleanness symbolizes separation from sin in order to be intimate with God. It prefigures Christ’s work bringing holiness (Heb. 7:26; 10:10).

12:7 Human birth is contaminated with sin ever since Adam. The remedy is in new birth (John 3:3–8) through Christ (Rom. 5:15–21).

13:46 Skin disease symbolizes the contagion of sin, which alienates us from God and man. Only Christ can restore the fellowship broken by sin (1 John 1:3).

14:2 Cleansing prefigures Christ’s work of cleansing from sin (Luke 5:12–14Heb. 9:9–14).

15:1 Disorders of the body symbolize the disorder of sin, to be cleansed by Christ (Heb. 9:9–14).

16:16 Symbolical atonement prefigures Christ’s final atonement (Heb. 9:7–14).

17:11 The blood symbolizing life prefigures the blood of Christ, whose poured-out life brings atonement for sin (Rom. 3:25Heb. 9:12–14, 18–26).

17:14 In the superior blessing of the new covenant we partake of the blood of Christ as the source of spiritual life (John 6:53–56).

18:3 Separation from pagan practices is part of holiness with God, prefiguring the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26) and his people (2 Cor. 6:14–18).

18:5 Ultimately, the holiness of God requires perfect obedience, which is found in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21). Sinful man cannot keep the law (Rom. 10:5Gal. 3:12–14).

19:2 Loyalty to God requires a life of holiness (1 Pet. 1:15–22).

19:18 The love commandment finds fulfillment in Christ and in those who are his (Matt. 22:39Rom. 13:9Gal. 5:14James 2:81 John 3:11–18; 4:7–21).

20:2 Sin has consequences in curse and death, prefiguring both the death of Christ as sin-bearer (1 Pet. 2:24) and eternal death in hell (Rev. 20:14–15).

21:1 Holiness requires separation from death, which symbolizes sin. The priests prefigure the priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:26–28) and of his redeemed people (1 Pet. 2:5, 9Rev. 1:6; 5:10).

22:3 Sin, symbolized by uncleanness, disqualifies us from heavenly things and must be cleansed by Christ (Heb. 9:8–13).

23:5 See Deut. 16:1–8. The Passover prefigures the Last Supper and Christ’s death (Matt. 26:19, 26–281 Cor. 5:7).

23:16 See Deut. 16:9–12. This is the feast of “Pentecost,” fulfilled in Acts when the firstfruits from the nations are gathered into the church (Acts 2:1–11).

23:28 The day of atonement, an annual day described in chapter 16, prefigures the once-for-all atonement of Christ (Heb. 9:7–14; 10:3–5).

24:2 Continual light prefigures Jesus as the light of the world (John 1:4–9; 3:19–21; 8:12; 9:5).

24:8 Continual bread prefigures Jesus as the bread of life (John 6:35, 48–51).

25:4 The rest given to the land prefigures the final rest given in the consummation (Heb. 4:9–11Rev. 21:1–22:5). See notes on Gen. 2:2 and 2:3.

25:10 The year of liberty prefigures the liberty given by Christ (Isa. 61:1–2Luke 4:18–21).

26:14 Sin leads to a curse, anticipating Christ’s sin-bearing (Gal. 3:13–14), and sin ultimately leads to hell (Rev. 20:14–15).

27:10 The permanence of holiness prefigures the permanence of redemption (John 10:28–29) and of the new world (Rev. 22:5).

Numbers

The journey through the wilderness prefigures the Christian journey through this world to the new world (1 Cor. 10:1–11Heb. 4:3–10).

1:3 Readiness for war prefigures spiritual war (Eph. 6:13).

2:17 The people of God are to be organized with God at the center (Eph. 4:4–6).

3:12 The Levites as a holy substitute prefigure Christ as priest, representative, and substitute (Heb. 7:23–28).

4:15 The penalty of death for approaching God’s holiness indicates the need for perfect mediation through Christ (Heb. 9:23–26).

5:20 The need for faithfulness in marriage prefigures the faithfulness of the church to Christ (2 Cor. 11:2–4Eph. 5:25–27).

6:5 The special holiness of the Nazirite prefigures the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26).

7:5 Holy service prefigures the service of Christ (Heb. 7:23–8:2) and his people (Rom. 12:1–2).

8:16 Christ substitutes for us and represents us before God (Heb. 7:23–28).

9:10 Being clean for the Passover prefigures moral purity in the church (1 Cor. 5:7–8).

10:2 Summoning prefigures God’s instruction to the church (Eph. 4:11 Thess. 4:1–3).

11:17 The distribution of the Spirit foreshadows the wider distribution at Pentecost (11:29Joel 2:28Acts 2:4, 16–18).

12:8 Rejection of Moses prefigures the seriousness of rejecting Christ’s unique prophetic ministry (John 3:32–36; 5:23).

13:31 The unbelief of Israel contrasts both with the faithfulness of Christ (Matt. 4:1–10) and the faith of Christians (Heb. 3:7–4:3).

14:35 Death indicates judgment on unbelief (Heb. 3:16–19).

15:30 Cutting off prefigures apostasy from Christ (Heb. 10:26–31).

16:2 Rebellion prefigures false teaching in the church (Jude 10–13).

17:5 The choice of Aaron alone prefigures Christ as the one way (John 14:6).

18:5 The priests turn away wrath, prefiguring Christ’s propitiation (Rom. 3:23–25).

19:9 Purification prefigures the purification of Christ’s work (Heb. 9:13–14).

20:24 The failures in the priests point to the need for the greater priesthood of Christ (Heb. 7:23–25).

21:9 Looking at the serpent prefigures faith in Christ who is lifted up (John 3:14–16).

22:12 God overrules all plots against his purposes (Acts 2:23Eph. 1:11–12).

24:17 Partial fulfillments in David’s and Solomon’s rule anticipate Christ’s rule over his enemies (1 Cor. 15:24–27Eph. 1:20–22).

25:3 Idolatry leads to chastisement and death (1 Cor. 10:20Rev. 14:9–11).

27:4 Inheritance of the land anticipates eternal inheritance of the new world (Heb. 11:13–16).

28:3 Repeated, scheduled offerings anticipate one final offering by Christ (Heb. 10:1–10).

30:3 The authority of a man anticipates the authority of Christ over the church (Eph. 5:21–24).

31:16 The war prefigures holy war against sin (Eph. 6:111 Pet. 2:11).

32:17 The 2 1/2 tribes receive their inheritance in Josh. 13:8–33. The tribes’ commitment to the whole nation prefigures cooperative work in the church (1 Corinthians 12).

33:2 The names of the locations record God’s faithfulness to his promise to bring his people to the land (Gen. 12:7Ex. 6:4), prefiguring his faithfulness to believers in Christ (2 Cor. 1:20).

34:13 The inheritance is distributed in Joshua 14–19. The allotment of this land prefigures allotment to each of Christ’s people of an eternal inheritance (Eph. 1:11Col. 1:12).

35:11 See Joshua 20. Deliverance from death prefigures Christ becoming a refuge from death for his people (John 8:51Heb. 2:14; 6:18).

36:2 See note on 27:4.

Deuteronomy

The righteousness and wisdom of the law of God prefigure the righteousness of Christ, which is given to his people. The anticipation of entering the Promised Land prefigures Christians’ hope for the new heaven and the new earth (Rev. 21:1–22:5).

1:32 The people’s unbelief (see Numbers 14) contrasts with faith for entering God’s rest (Heb. 3:7–4:11).

2:24 God, not human strength, gives victory (3:22), prefiguring victory in Christ (Heb. 2:14–15).

3:12 Moses recalls Numbers 32; see note on Num. 32:17.

3:26 The insufficiency of Moses contrasts with the sufficiency of Christ, who has entered the eternal inheritance on our behalf (Heb. 9:23–26; 10:19–22).

4:6 Israel by obeying would have been a light to the nations. Christ in his obedience is the light that Israel failed to be (Isa. 42:6John 1:4–9).

5:2 The covenant at Horeb (Sinai) anticipates the new covenant, where obedience will spring from the heart (Heb. 8:8–13), because of Christ’s purification (Heb. 10:14).

6:5 Love for God is the greatest commandment (Matt. 22:37–38). One’s relation to God himself is central to life, and true love for God and reconciliation to God are possible only in Christ (John 14:6Rom. 5:1–10).

6:14 Holiness before God avoids compromise with evil, prefiguring the holiness of Christ (Heb. 7:26) and his people (1 Pet. 1:15–16; 2:11).

8:18 Gratitude rather than pride characterizes the people of God (1 Cor. 1:28–312 Cor. 9:15).

9:19 Moses’ intercession prefigures Christ’s intercession (Heb. 7:23–25).

10:16 Circumcision of the heart comes from renewal through the Spirit of Christ (Rom. 8:9–13Col. 2:11;Heb. 8:8–13).

11:9 Obedience is the basis for life, prefiguring Christ’s resurrection life as the reward for his obedience (Phil. 2:8–11).

12:5 Access to God at a single location (Jerusalem, 1 Kings 8:16Ps. 122:4) prefigures access through Christ alone (John 14:6).

13:2 False prophets prefigure the danger of false teachings drawing people away from serving God through Christ (2 Pet. 2:1).

14:2 Refraining from unclean foods symbolizes separation from sin (2 Cor. 6:17).

15:2 Release of debtors anticipates the great release from sin through Christ (Luke 4:18–19).

16:1 The great feasts (see Leviticus 23) prefigure the celebration of Christ’s deliverance (1 Cor. 5:7).

17:7 The purging of evil prefigures the purging of evil from the church (1 Cor. 5:13) and from the consummation (Rev. 21:8).

17:15 Kings prefigure the righteousness of Christ the perfect king (Isa. 9:6–7Matt. 27:37Rev. 19:16).

18:18 Prophets anticipate Christ, the final prophet (Acts 3:22–26).

19:4 The provision for justice prefigures the justice of Christ’s rule (Isa. 9:6–7).

20:4 God fights in anticipation of Christ’s fight against evil during his earthly life (Matt. 12:28–29), in his death (Heb. 2:14–15), and in his second coming (Rev. 19:15–21).

21:9 Provisions for purity and justice anticipate final purification and justice in Christ (Heb. 9:23–28).

21:23 The curse anticipates Christ bearing the curse of God on our behalf when he is crucified (“hanged on a tree”) (Gal. 3:13).

22:22 Provisions for sexual purity anticipate the purity of the church as Christ’s bride (Eph. 5:25–27;Rev. 19:7–8).

23:9 God’s presence in the camp for war (20:4) requires holiness, prefiguring holy war in Christ (Rev. 19:14–16).

24:1 Provisions for divorce are due to hardness of heart and are inferior to God’s design (Matt. 19:3–9), which is to be fulfilled in Christ (Eph. 5:22–33).

25:4 Provision for the ox is an illustration of a larger principle of provision for labor in the church (1 Cor. 9:9–111 Tim. 5:18).

25:5 Provision for a continuing name and inheritance prefigures God’s promise and provision for our name (Rev. 2:17) and our inheritance (Eph. 1:13–141 Pet. 1:4–5). It also prefigures Christ, who as younger “brother” to Adam raises up spiritually alive children (Heb. 2:13).

26:8 Thanksgiving for redemption prefigures Christian thanksgiving for redemption in Christ (Heb. 13:15–16).

27:26 All are subject to the curse, and can escape only through Christ’s taking the curse on himself (Gal. 3:10–14).

28:1 Eternal blessings of salvation come in Christ (Gal. 3:14), who removed the curse we deserved (Gal. 3:13).

29:4 Renewal of the heart is to come in Christ (Rom. 11:8Heb. 8:8–13).

30:12 Christ brings power to obey God from the heart (Rom. 10:6–8).

31:26 God makes provision for the preservation of the law for future generations, including us (Rom. 15:41 Cor. 10:11).

32:5 Israel’s rebellion contrasts with the faithfulness that is to characterize God’s children (Phil. 2:15).

32:6 God’s care for Israel prefigures his care for Christ’s people (Rom. 8:15–17).

32:21 The apostasy of Israel anticipates the rejection of the gospel (Rom. 10:19).

34:10 The uniqueness of Moses anticipates the uniqueness of Christ (Acts 3:22–26).

Joshua

The conquest through Joshua prefigures Christ conquering his enemies, both Satan (Heb. 2:14–15) and rebellious human beings. The conquest takes place both through the gospel (Matt. 28:18–20) and in the destruction at the second coming (Rev. 19:11–21).

1:6 Joshua’s role prefigures Jesus empowering his disciples (Matt. 28:18–20Acts 1:8).

2:9 Rahab in her faith anticipates the salvation of Gentiles through faith (Gal. 3:6–9Heb. 11:31James 2:25).

3:11 God’s presence brings the people through the waters of death into the land, prefiguring Christ leading us to eternal life (John 11:25–26).

4:6 Memorials of God’s faithfulness look forward to the message of Christ’s salvation.

5:14 The divine commander anticipates Christ, who is the commander in climactic spiritual war (Matt. 28:18Heb. 2:14–15Rev. 17:14; 19:11–21).

6:2 The fall of Jericho prefigures the fall of Babylon and the end of the world (Rev. 18:2).

7:11 Israel’s suffering because of unholiness prefigures the need for holiness in the church (1 Cor. 5:1–13).

8:32 A permanent record and a recital of the covenant fulfill the instructions given under Moses (Deut. 27:2–8). Intimacy with God through the covenant looks forward to the new covenant in Christ (Heb. 8:8–13).

9:3 Though Israel fails in not consulting the Lord (9:14), the result prefigures the time when through the gospel people from many nations will come to recognize the God of Israel (Luke 24:47Acts 1:8Rev. 5:9–10).

10:14 The great display of God’s power on behalf of his people prefigures the power of Christ’s resurrection and God’s commitment to save those who belong to Christ (Eph. 1:19–23).

11:23 The whole conquest takes place according to the plan and promise of God (Deuteronomy 7, etc.), illustrating God’s commitment to Israel in love and anticipating his commitment to believers in Christ (Eph. 1:3–14).

12:1 The list of defeated kings prefigures the triumph of Christ over all nations (Eph. 1:22Rev. 5:9–10; 19:11–21; 20:8–9).

13:8 Inheritance takes place according to plan (Numbers 32), prefiguring God’s faithfulness with respect to the eternal inheritance in the new heaven and the new earth (Eph. 1:11, 14; 2:181 Pet. 1:42 Pet. 3:13).

14:2 See Numbers 32–35, especially 32:33; 33:54; 34:17; 35:2. Inheritance takes place according to the plan of God, anticipating eternal inheritance.

14:6 See Num. 14:6–8. Caleb is a special example showing that inheritance comes to those who have faith in God and his promises. He prefigures eternal inheritance by faith (Rom. 4:13–16Gal. 3:7, 18).

15:1 Detailed specification of boundaries underlines for future generations their participation in the promise. It prefigures the detailed care and provision that God makes for each of us, anticipating the full inheritance in the new heaven and the new earth (1 Pet. 1:42 Pet. 3:13Rev. 21:1).

16:1 Each of the tribes is provided for (Num. 33:54), and with it each of the members of the tribes, prefiguring God’s provision for each follower of Christ (John 10:3, 14; see also John 6:35).

18:4 The situation is reminiscent of the spying of the land in Numbers 13. But this time the result is more favorable, prefiguring the even greater blessings that God has in store through the new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13).

19:1 See note on 15:1.

20:1 The selection of cities of refuge fulfills the instructions through Moses (Num. 35:9–29Deut. 19:1–13). It makes provision for refuge from death, prefiguring the coming of Christ as final refuge and solution to death (Heb. 2:14–15Rev. 1:18).

21:2 The distribution of the Levites among the tribes fulfills Gen. 49:7 and Num. 35:1–8, and provides all the tribes with people to teach the law (Lev. 10:11Mal. 2:4–9). Their teaching prefigures the knowledge of God from the heart in the new covenant (Heb. 8:8–13).

22:26 The altar confirming participation in God’s promises prefigures the Holy Spirit sealing participation in Christ (2 Cor. 1:22Eph. 1:13).

23:6 The call to loyalty to the Mosaic covenant prefigures the call to faith in Christ (Matt. 28:18–20Heb. 3:12–14).

24:15 God must be served with exclusive loyalty (Deut. 5:7), prefiguring the exclusivity of commitment to Christ as the one way of salvation (Matt. 6:24; 10:34–39John 14:6Acts 4:121 Cor. 10:21–22).

Judges

The judges save Israel, thus prefiguring Christ. But the judges have flaws and failures, and Israel repeatedly slips back into idolatry (2:19), spiraling downward to chaos. They need a king (21:25), and not only a king but a perfect king, the Messiah (Isa. 9:6–7).

1:2 The leading role of Judah anticipates the rise of kings from the line of Judah (Gen. 49:10), beginning with King David and culminating in Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:1–16).

2:18 God raises judges to save the people, prefiguring the sending of Christ (Matt. 1:21). But the judges’ help is only temporary (Judg. 2:19).

3:20 The surprise prefigures the surprising character of salvation in Christ, which seems to the world to be weakness (1 Cor. 1:25).

4:9 The glory goes ultimately to God, not to human strength or courage, prefiguring the divine glory through human weakness in the cross of Christ (1 Cor. 1:25).

5:4 God’s power and glory at Seir (Deut. 33:2) prefigure his present and future triumphs (Rev. 19:6).

6:15 God again chooses to save Israel through a weak and timid person (cf. 4:9), prefiguring the triumph of divine glory through human weakness in Christ (1 Cor. 1:252 Cor. 13:4).

7:3 God reduces the number of troops, prefiguring his work of eternal salvation through a single person, Jesus Christ.

8:16 Those who despise the work of God through a small number prefigure those who despise the work of God in Christ (1 Cor. 1:18–31).

9:56 The horrors due to Abimelech give evidence for the need for a king, thus looking forward to the coming of David and his descendants, above all Jesus Christ, the son of David and final king.

10:6 Disobedience and idolatry further multiply (see 2:19), giving further evidence for the need of permanent salvation through the coming line of King David.

11:2 Jephthah is a flawed judge because of his ancestry, because of his appointment by the elders rather than a direct call from God, and because of his foolish vow. He makes evident the need for permanent salvation through the coming line of King David.

12:4 The fighting among the Israelites shows the need for a king in the coming line of David who will bring unity to the people.

13:5 Samson is to be a Nazirite (see Numbers 6) and especially holy. He shows great promise as a savior of Israel, prefiguring Christ.

13:8 The “man of God,” “the angel of the Lord” (v. 15) is God himself (v. 22), anticipating the incarnation of Christ.

14:3 Israel is told not to intermarry with the Canaanites (Deut. 7:3). In Samson’s case the Lord uses it for good (Judg. 14:4), but it ultimately becomes Samson’s downfall (ch. 16), indicating the need for a perfect savior to deliver people from their spiritual “marriage” to idolatry.

15:14 Samson triumphs after being delivered as a captive over to the enemies, prefiguring Christ’s victory after being delivered to his enemies.

16:30 Samson, though sinful, delivers Israel through his death, prefiguring Christ the sinless one delivering his people.

17:2 Sin is compounded, in stealing, making an idol, partly backing down from a vow (v. 4), and making a false priesthood (v. 5). This shows further descent into sinfulness and the need for the coming king in the line of David.

18:19 The multiplication of sin shows the need for salvation through the coming king in the line of David.

19:30 Gibeah has become like Sodom (Genesis 19), showing the depths of sin and the need for salvation.

20:14 Division and war, rather than unity in righteousness, show the need for salvation through the coming king in the line of David.

21:10 The tribe of Benjamin is saved from utter annihilation, but only through further disunity, slaughter, and disorder. The disaster shows the need for permanent salvation through the king.

Ruth

The line of offspring leading to Christ goes through Judah to Boaz to David (4:18–22Matt. 1:5–6). Boaz the redeemer (Ruth 2:20), prefiguring Christ, enables Naomi’s disgrace to be removed and Ruth, a foreigner, to be included in God’s people (prefiguring the inclusion of the Gentiles, Gal. 3:7–9, 14–18, 29).

1:16 Ruth expresses faith in the God of Israel, as well as love for Naomi, anticipating the role of faith when Christ comes to bring salvation.

1:20 Naomi’s transition from bitterness to blessedness prefigures the participation of God’s people in Christ’s death and resurrection (Phil. 3:10).

2:20 The kindness and protection of Boaz, the kinsman-redeemer, prefigure the work of Christ the redeemer.

3:9 Christ spreads his protection over the church, his bride (2 Cor. 11:2Eph. 5:25–27).

4:11 The blessing of fruitfulness has a near fulfillment in the birth of Obed (v. 13), but points ultimately to Christ and his fruitfulness (Heb. 2:10).

1 Samuel

David, the king after God’s heart (16:7Acts 13:22), prefigures Christ, in contrast to Saul, who is the kind of king that the people want (1 Sam. 8:5, 19–20). Saul’s persecution of David prefigures worldly people’s persecution of Christ and of Christ’s people.

1:11 By his power to bring life out of barrenness God raises up Samuel as his representative, prefiguring the virgin birth of Christ (Matt. 1:25).

2:7 The raising of the downtrodden that Hannah experiences prefigures the reversal of positions with Christ’s coming (Luke 1:48–53).

3:19 Samuel’s calling at an early age prefigures the intimacy with God that Christ as the Son enjoys with the Father from all eternity.

4:11 The capture of the ark, which symbolizes God himself, and the death of the priests is a kind of “humiliation” of God’s name, prefiguring the humiliation of Christ in his crucifixion. But it all takes place in accordance with God’s sovereign purpose (2:34–35Acts 2:23; 4:25–28).

5:4 God executes judgment on Dagon, prefiguring the judgment in Christ against all idols and idol worship (Rev. 2:20).

6:12 By miraculous power God delivers the ark, the symbol of his name, prefiguring the miraculous deliverance of Christ from death.

7:8 Samuel acts as a faithful judge (v. 15; cf. Judg. 13:5), prophet (1 Sam. 3:19–20), and priest (7:8–9), prefiguring the work of Christ as king, prophet, and priest (Heb. 1:1–3).

8:5 A king like the nations contrasts with God’s kingship (v. 7). God intends Israel to have a king (Deut. 17:14–20), but the people’s desires and the kings themselves fall short. Saul’s failure contrasts with David’s success. But eventually David too fails (2 Samuel 11). The failure of merely human kings points to the need for the perfect king, Christ, who will be divine and human (Isa. 9:6–7).

8:7 The people’s rejection of God’s ways prefigures the rejection of Christ (Acts 3:13–15; 7:51–53).

9:16 God indicates his sovereignty over the appointment of kings, prefiguring the appointment of Christ as king over all (Ps. 2:6Eph. 1:20–22Phil. 2:9–11).

10:1 The oil prefigures the coming of the Holy Spirit to empower. Saul’s later failures show that he is only a shadow of the greater anointing that comes to David (16:13) and climactically to Christ (Luke 4:18John 3:34), and then to those who belong to Christ (2 Cor. 1:21–22).

11:15 Saul is initially successful, receiving the benefits of God’s favor. This temporary favor contrasts with the lasting favor on David and his offspring, supremely on Christ (Matt. 3:17).

12:14 As the king goes, so go the people. Their failures show the need for the coming of Christ the perfect king, who is able to change the hearts of his people.

13:12 Saul knew that sacrifice was supposed to be offered only by the priests (Num. 18:7). Saul’s sins lead to his replacement by David (1 Sam. 13:14; 16:7), prefiguring the need for Christ the perfect king.

14:6 The Lord saved Israel through Jonathan that day (v. 23). Ultimate salvation comes through one man, Christ Jesus (1 Tim. 2:5).

15:22 Sinners replace real obedience with outward tokens (see Mic. 6:6–8). Full obedience from the heart is found in Christ (Heb. 10:5–10).

16:7 The choice of David contrasts with people’s looking on outward appearance (10:23–24). The contrast prefigures people’s rejection of Christ’s humiliation and suffering (Isa. 53:31 Cor. 1:18–31).

17:47 God’s working national deliverance through David prefigures international salvation through Christ, who defeats Satan (Heb. 2:14–15).

18:3 Despite Saul’s antagonism, Saul’s son Jonathan and daughter Michal go over to David’s side. David prefigures the spiritual attraction of Jesus Christ, who is the final David (Matt. 4:18–22; 8:9–13).

19:10 Saul’s repeated persecution of David in his innocence prefigures the repeated persecution of Christ (John 8:44–47).

20:33 The conflict with Jonathan prefigures the conflict within households over loyalty to Christ (Matt. 10:34–39).

21:5 The exception made for David as God’s anointed prefigures the role of Christ, God’s anointed, in relation to the law (Matt. 12:3–4, 8).

22:16 As Saul continues to pursue David, Saul’s sins multiply, prefiguring the progressive enslavement to sin on the part of those who refuse to come to Christ.

23:2 Directions from God repeatedly help David to choose a path forward, prefiguring the direction from God through Christ to the road to eternal life (Matt. 7:24–27John 5:24).

24:6 David respects Saul’s position as God’s anointed king, unlike Pilate, who failed to recognize Jesus’ position as God’s anointed King (John 19:10).

24:17 David shows mercy to Saul, prefiguring the mercy of Christ even toward those who have opposed him (1 Tim. 1:13–16).

25:24 Abigail offers herself as a guilt-bearer for her worthless husband, prefiguring the gracious guilt-bearing of Christ (1 Pet. 2:23–25).

25:29 Vengeance belongs to the Lord (Rom. 12:19). In recalling this, David prefigures Christ’s willingness to leave vengeance in God’s hands (1 Pet. 2:23).

26:9 See the note on 24:6.

27:1 Though David loses heart, God continues to protect David in fulfillment of his purpose to make David king (16:1). God’s faithfulness even to an imperfect man magnifies his faithfulness in the case of Christ, the perfect king.

28:7 By consulting a medium, Saul makes a further step into wickedness, further contrasting his life with the righteousness of David, and the climactic righteousness of the Messiah.

29:11 God continues faithfulness to David by removing him from involvement in the death of Saul and Jonathan (31:2) and enabling him to return to Ziklag in time to rescue the wives and children (30:1–31). See note on 27:1.

30:6 David through the strength of God acts as deliverer, prefiguring Christ the deliverer of captives (Luke 4:18–19).

31:6 God fulfills his word against Saul (28:19), showing that sin in a ruler brings suffering and death not only on himself but on others under his care. The failure of Saul shows the need for a perfect ruler in the line of David (Isa. 9:6–7).

2 Samuel

David as a model king brings blessing to the nation until he falls into sin with Bathsheba (ch. 11). Though he repents, the remainder of his reign is flawed, pointing to the need for the coming of Christ the perfect messianic king.

1:23 David mentions nothing of Saul’s failures and sins, prefiguring the grace and forgiveness of Christ.

2:10 Judah and Israel are eventually united under David and Solomon (5:1–51 Kings 4:20), but division reappears under Rehoboam and his successors (1 Kings 11:11–13; 12:16–24). The strife points to the need for permanent union, which will be achieved only through Christ the king.

3:37 David’s graciousness and respect for Abner, in contrast to Joab’s vengeance, display the qualities of a godly king, prefiguring the graciousness of Christ.

4:11 David’s respect for Ish-bosheth, like his respect for Abner, shows the desire for reconciliation and forgiveness, prefiguring Christ’s reconciliation.

5:2 David unites Israel and Judah under one head, fulfilling God’s prophetic purpose (1 Sam. 16:1) and prefiguring the greater unity of God’s people to be accomplished in Christ (1 Corinthians 12Eph. 4:1–16).

6:7 Only the Levites were to carry the ark, touching only its poles (Ex. 25:14Num. 4:15). God in his holiness destroys sinners who approach him unauthorized, but his presence can also bring blessing (2 Sam. 6:12). The tension is resolved only when the way to approach God is opened through Christ’s work of purification (Heb. 10:19–22).

7:12 God’s covenant with David has a proximate fulfillment with Solomon (1 Kings 1:46; 8:15–21). But Solomon fails (1 Kings 11:1–10). God preserves the line of offspring (1 Kings 11:12, 36; 15:42 Kings 8:19) until Christ the everlasting king comes (Matt. 1:1–16).

7:14 God promises David that he will be a father to Solomon. As God’s son, Solomon prefigures Christ the eternal Son (Heb. 1:5).

8:15 David as model king subdues enemies and brings justice, prefiguring the work of Christ the king (Isa. 9:6–7).

9:1 David’s graciousness toward the house of Saul fulfills his earlier promise to Saul (1 Sam. 24:21–22) and Jonathan (1 Sam. 20:15–17), and it prefigures the graciousness of Christ the king.

10:2 Willingly or unwillingly Ammon comes to acknowledge David’s rule, prefiguring the willing or unwilling submission of all nations to Christ’s rule (Psalm 2).

11:4 David later repents (12:13). But David and his house and his rule over the whole nation suffer various consequences for the rest of his life. The devastation from one sin points to the need for Christ the perfect, sinless king (Isa. 42:1–4).

12:13 God is gracious to forgive, ultimately for the sake of Christ (1 John 1:9). But sin still brings consequences (2 Sam. 12:10–12, 14). See note on 11:4.

13:22 The sin of Amnon, in its similarity to David’s sin (11:4), begins a series of devastating consequences for David’s house (12:10–12), including not only Absalom’s actions but David’s neglect of discipline and justice toward Amnon and Absalom. See note on 11:4.

14:1 David’s love for Absalom prefigures Christ’s love for sinners. But David falls short of Christ by neglecting justice: murder deserves death (Num. 35:31–34).

15:1 Absalom’s betrayal of his father prefigures Judas’s betrayal of Jesus (John 13:18), and more broadly the treachery of all who rebel against God the Father and Christ.

15:30 David’s sorrow prefigures the sorrow of Christ as he leaves Jerusalem and prays in Gethsemane (Matt. 26:30, 36–46).

16:12 David leaves vengeance to God, prefiguring the patience of Christ before his enemies (1 Pet. 2:23).

16:22 Absalom’s sordid behavior fulfills God’s prophecy in 12:11–12, further illustrating the devastation of sin and the need for a perfect redeemer king.

17:5 Through Hushai and other circumstances, God shows mercy to David and answers David’s need expressed in 15:31–37. The turning back of the effects of sin, and David’s rescue from death, look forward to final redemption in Christ.

18:33 David’s grief, though flawed (19:2, 5–7), prefigures the willingness of the Son of God to die in place of sinners (Rom. 5:8).

19:22 Forgiveness under the reestablished kingship prefigures forgiveness for former rebels under Christ’s kingship (1 Tim. 1:12–16).

20:1 Divisiveness continues to rear its head after Absalom’s death, partly because of David’s preference for Judah in 19:11–15, leading to the anger in 19:43. The kingdom continues to suffer indirect consequences from David’s sin with Bathsheba, underlining the need for Christ the perfect king. See note on 11:4.

20:10 Though David is reconciled to Amasa (v. 4), Joab kills him, probably because of his role in Absalom’s rebellion (17:25). See note on 20:1.

21:3 Atonement and blessing are needed, but David’s solution (v. 6) does not give ultimate satisfaction (Deut. 24:16). Full resolution of justice requires Christ the divine king with infinite wisdom, and the coming of resurrection from the dead (Rev. 20:11–15).

22:1 This song is included in the Psalter in Psalm 18, indicating that it is to be sung by the people of God as well as David. See note on 1 Chron. 15:16.

22:50 The spread of praise among the nations anticipates the spread of the gospel (Acts 1:8Rom. 15:9).

22:51 God’s salvation for David prefigures his salvation through Christ the king.

23:8 The list of mighty men prefigures the might in the army of God under Christ the king (Rev. 19:11–14).

24:1 Out of the need for atonement comes the designation of the site for the temple of Solomon (1 Chron. 21:28–22:1), which prefigures Christ as the final temple where atonement is accomplished (John 2:19–21). See note on 1 Chron. 22:1.

24:17 The suffering of the sheep for the sin of their king is reversed when Christ suffers for the sins of the sheep (John 10:15). Christ’s suffering answers David’s request that God’s hand would be against “my father’s house,” the line leading to Christ.

1 Kings

The reign of Solomon fulfills the first stage of God’s promise to David to establish the kingdom of his offspring (2 Sam. 7:12). Solomon in some ways is a model king, prefiguring Christ. But his decline into sin (1 Kings 11), the sins of his offspring, the division and strife between Israel and Judah, and the continual problems with false worship indicate the need for a perfect king and an everlasting kingdom (Isa. 9:6–7) surpassing the entire period of the monarchy. Many passages in 1 Kings have parallels in 2 Chronicles.

1:13 David’s purpose prefigures the purpose of God to establish Christ as king, when many prefer alternatives (Psalm 2Acts 13:33).

2:6 Solomon’s wisdom is tested in dealing with unfinished business from the reign of David. Solomon’s wisdom prefigures the wisdom of Christ (Matt. 12:42Col. 2:3). The combination of mercy and justice characterizes David and Solomon in anticipation of Christ.

3:9 See note on 2:6. God promises wisdom in 3:12, and fulfillment is seen in 3:28 and 4:29–34.

4:1 The blessings of order, peace, justice, and prosperity in Solomon’s reign prefigure the blessings of Christ’s reign.

4:34 The attraction of Solomon’s wisdom prefigures all nations hearing the wisdom of Christ (Acts 1:8).

5:5 Solomon’s building of the temple fulfills God’s promise in 2 Sam. 7:13 (cf. 1 Chron. 17:12) and prefigures the building of an everlasting temple. Christ’s resurrection body is an everlasting temple (John 2:19–22), and then Christ builds the church as a temple (Matt. 16:181 Cor. 3:16).

5:8 The aid in building from Hiram, a Gentile, prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in the building of the church as a temple (Eph. 2:19–22).

6:2 The temple is like the tabernacle of Moses (Exodus 25–27; see note on Ex. 25:8), but it is larger and more magnificent, symbolizing an expansion and a further stage in God’s purpose to dwell with his people. Still further development takes place with Ezekiel’s vision of a new temple (Ezekiel 40–43), with the church (Eph. 2:19–22), and with the new Jerusalem in the consummation (Rev. 21:3, 10–22:5).

7:14 See note on 5:8. Hiram’s God-given wisdom is like that of Bezalel and Oholiab, who supervised the construction of the tabernacle (Ex. 31:1–6). It prefigures the wisdom of Christ and of his servants in the building of the church (Eph. 2:19–22).

7:23 The sea greatly enlarges the basin for washing that was in the tabernacle (Ex. 30:17–21). See note onEx. 30:20.

7:27 The stands with their basins (v. 38) represent small, mobile versions of the sea (vv. 23–26), further underlining the abundance of water (see note on v. 23). The multiplication of water, compared with the single basin for washing in Ex. 30:17–21, anticipates the even greater abundance when the water provided by God becomes a river of life (Ezek. 47:1–12John 4:10–14; 19:34Rev. 22:1–2).

8:11 See Ex. 40:34–35. The glory of the Lord later departs, because of the apostasy of the people (Ezekiel 10). The coming of God’s presence prefigures the fullness of the Spirit in Christ (Matt. 3:16–17John 3:34–35; 1:14) and within the church (Acts 2:3–41 Cor. 3:16).

8:24 The promise to David is in 2 Sam. 7:13. The temple anticipates the greater fulfillment in the dwelling of God with man through Christ. See notes on 1 Kings 5:5 and 6:2.

8:30 The key role of the temple in prayer prefigures the role of Christ, through whose name we have access to God (John 14:13–14Heb. 10:19–22).

9:8 The desolation comes to pass in 2 Kings 25:9–11, indicating the need for true obedience and a greater temple that is to come in Christ (John 2:19–21).

10:1 The queen of Sheba’s coming to hear wisdom, mentioned also in Matt. 12:42, prefigures the coming of the nations to Christ (Acts 1:8Col. 2:3).

11:2 Solomon’s disobedience leads to disastrous judgment (vv. 9–11), anticipating the judgments on later idolatries among God’s people. Solomon’s failure indicates the need for Christ the perfect king in the line of David (Matt. 1:1–16).

12:15 God’s prophecy in 11:29–39 begins to be fulfilled, and God’s people split into two kingdoms. Both Rehoboam’s failure and the resulting disunity and strife among God’s people show the need for Christ the perfect king as the unifier of his people (1 Corinthians 12Eph. 4:1–6).

13:2 A striking prophecy, fulfilled in 2 Kings 23:15–17, shows the power of God’s word even in the midst of sin, corruption of worship, and chaos. The power of the prophetic word prefigures the power of Christ, the final prophet (Acts 3:22–26Heb. 1:1–2).

13:34 See the description of Jeroboam’s sin in 12:26–33. Judgment for sin is prophesied in 14:9–12, and falls in 14:17–18, 15:29–30. Jeroboam’s sin continues with his successors (15:34; 16:2, 7, 19, 26; 22:532 Kings 3:3; 10:29, 31; 13:2, 11; 14:24; 15:9, 18, 24, 28), ultimately leading to the exile of the northern kingdom (2 Kings 17:21–23). The judgments on false worship show the need for true worship, prefiguring Christ as the one way to God (John 14:6).

14:10 See note on 13:34. The power of God’s word is seen when the judgment falls in 14:17–18 and 15:29–30.

14:22 Just as in the northern kingdom (v. 9), false worship in the southern kingdom eventually leads to exile (2 Kings 23:26–27; 25:1–21; see note on 1 Kings 13:34).

15:4 In spite of sin God is faithful to the promise to David (2 Sam. 7:5–17), and maintains the line of David (1 Kings 11:12, 32, 34, 362 Kings 8:19; 19:34) down through a list of kings of Judah leading to Christ (Matt. 1:1–16).

15:18 In contrast to the kings of Israel (vv. 26, 34), Asa is a good king (v. 11), prefiguring the righteousness of Christ his descendant. Yet in this case he fails to rely on God (see 2 Chron. 16:7–12), underlining the need for perfect righteousness in the king.

15:29–30 The killing fulfills the prophecy in 14:9–11 (see note on 13:34). The wiping out of the king’s line of descent contrasts with God’s faithfulness in maintaining the line of David leading to Christ (see note on15:4).

16:3 See 15:29–30. Judgments on the northern kingdom show the consistency of God’s word and his holiness (see note on 13:34).

17:1 The power of the prophetic word prefigures the power of Christ’s word (Heb. 1:1–3).

17:14 The miraculous supply of food through the power of God’s word prefigures the power of Christ to multiply bread (Matt. 14:13–21Mark 8:1–9) and to himself be the bread of heaven (John 6:26–51).

17:21 Impartation of life prefigures Christ’s resurrection of Jairus’s daughter (Matt. 9:18–25), his resurrection of Lazarus (John 11:38–44), his own resurrection (John 10:18), and his role as “the resurrection and the life” (John 11:25–26) who gives spiritual life to us in anticipation of the resurrection of the body (John 5:28–29).

18:39 Miraculous power anticipates the resurrection of Christ, which displays the power of God and draws the nations to acknowledge him (John 12:32).

19:2 Jezebel’s opposition undermines Elijah’s previous work, seeming to lead to failure (v. 4). But God’s purpose through his prophetic word stands (vv. 12, 15–18), prefiguring the victory when Christ fulfills prophecy.

19:16 See v. 19. Elijah is not the end, but one of a succession of prophets leading to Christ, the final prophet (Heb. 1:1–2).

19:18 The 7,000 illustrate the concept of a remnant, to be fulfilled by the Jews who believe in Christ (Rom. 11:3–10; see note on Isa. 6:13).

20:28 God’s desire to magnify his glory enables Ahab to defeat Ben-hadad twice (see vv. 19–21). The victory in battle prefigures the final victory of Christ and his army (Rev. 19:11–21).

20:42 Ahab’s failure contrasts with the complete elimination of enemies in the final battle led by Christ (Rev. 19:11–21).

21:19 The prophecy is fulfilled in 2 Kings 9:25–26, 36–37; 10:10–11, 17, showing the power of God’s word in judgment. This power prefigures the power of Christ’s word (Heb. 1:1–2; 4:12–13Rev. 19:15, 21).

22:19 The superiority of God to all earthly thrones is shown when Micaiah’s prophecy (vv. 23, 28) is fulfilled (vv. 34–36). The power of God and of his word anticipates the power shown in the resurrection of Christ (Eph. 1:20–22) and in the spread of the gospel, which confounds worldly authorities (1 Cor. 2:6–9).

2 Kings

Following the history in 1 Kings, Israel and Judah continue to decline through their false worship and disobedience, leading to exile (2 Kings 17; 25). Some good kings (notably Hezekiah and Josiah, chs. 18–20; 22:1–23:30) prefigure the need for Christ the perfect king, while Elisha prefigures the need for Christ the final prophet (Heb. 1:1–3). Many passages in 2 Kings have parallels in 2 Chronicles.

1:4 The prophecy is fulfilled in v. 17. The triumph of God’s word over all opposition prefigures the triumph of Christ and of the gospel.

2:11 Elijah’s ascent prefigures the triumph of Christ over death and his ascension (Luke 24:51Acts 1:9).

2:14 The dividing of the waters, reminiscent of Moses at the Red Sea (Ex. 14:21–22), Joshua at the Jordan (Josh. 3:7–17), and Elijah at the Jordan (2 Kings 2:8), confirms that Elisha has received the prophetic succession from Elijah (v. 9). The power over the waters (which are a symbol of death and chaos) prefigures the resurrection of Christ.

3:17 The provision of water, like the provision under Moses (Ex. 17:6; 20:8–11), prefigures Christ as the giver of the water of eternal life (John 4:10, 13–14Rev. 22:1).

4:34 The giving of life, like the instance with Elijah (1 Kings 17:17–24), prefigures the resurrection of Christ and the life he gives to us through union with him (Rom. 6:4, 8–11; 8:10–11Col. 3:1–4).

5:14 Cleansing from leprosy (Leviticus 14) prefigures cleansing from sin through the power of Christ (Luke 5:12–14). The inclusion of Naaman, a Syrian, prefigures the inclusion of the Gentiles in God’s salvation (Luke 24:47).

6:17 The vision of God’s angelic army indicates dimensions of spiritual warfare. It anticipates the spiritual war with the coming of Christ (Matt. 12:28–29Luke 10:18–19John 12:31Rev. 19:11–21).

7:1 The provision of food in spite of unbelief (see Ex. 16:1–21) prefigures Christ giving himself as the bread of heaven (John 6:35, 47–51).

8:15 Hazael’s fulfillment of earlier prophetic words (1 Kings 19:152 Kings 8:10) shows the power of God’s word in judgment. (See 10:32.) This power anticipates the power of Christ’s words (John 12:48Heb. 1:1–2; 4:12–13Rev. 1:16).

9:25 This fulfillment of earlier prophecy (1 Kings 19:16–17; 21:19–24) emphasizes the power of God’s word in bringing judgment. See notes on 1 Kings 21:19 and 2 Kings 8:15.

10:10 Jehu fulfills God’s prophetic words of judgment against Ahab’s house and wipes out the worship of Baal introduced by Jezebel (1 Kings 16:31–33), showing God’s power in judgment and anticipating the day of judgment (Rev. 20:11–15). See note on 1 Kings 21:19.

11:2 The rescue of Joash prefigures the rescue of Jesus from Herod (Matt. 2:13–15). God preserves the line of David for the sake of his promise (2 Sam. 7:16) and to carry out his purpose of salvation through the work of Christ (Rev. 12:4–5).

12:9 The attention to the temple prefigures the importance of building the church (Matt. 16:181 Cor. 14:12Eph. 2:20–22).

13:23 God’s compassion even toward a sinful people prefigures his compassion in Christ toward sinners (Matt. 9:13Luke 5:32).

14:10 A single act of pride from Amaziah brings disaster on the people, indicating the need for Christ as the perfect, humble king (Zech. 9:9).

15:9 See note on 1 Kings 13:34. The northern kingdom goes downhill toward eventual exile in 2 Kings 17:6–23. The degeneration points to the need for perfect kingship and redemption from the heart, both of which await the coming of Christ.

16:3 Under Ahaz the southern kingdom also suffers serious spiritual degeneration, pointing to the need for perfect kingship in Christ.

17:7 The exile is God’s judgment on sin (see note on 1 Kings 13:34), prefiguring the judgment on sin that Christ bore as a substitute (1 Pet. 2:21–24) and the final judgment at the consummation (Rev. 20:11–15).

18:5 Hezekiah as a faithful king prefigures the faithfulness and righteousness of Christ (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–4) and its fruits in the lives of Christ’s people. See the parallel passages in 2 Chronicles 32 and Isaiah 36–38.

18:30 Rabshakeh symbolizes the voice of Satan, who deceives and attacks the faith of God’s people (Gen. 3:4–5Matt. 4:1–10Eph. 6:16Rev. 12:9).

19:22 God vindicates his name against all slanders, prefiguring the vindication of his name in the resurrection of Christ (John 12:28).

20:5 God mercifully hears prayer, anticipating his mercy in Christ, through whom he hears our prayers (John 14:13–14; 15:16; 16:26–27).

21:8 Manasseh directly affronts God’s command and his holiness, which leads to a prophecy of judgment (vv. 12–15) and illustrates the pattern of rebellion leading to exile (24:2–4). By contrast, Manasseh’s evil points to the need for Christ as the perfect king.

22:2 Josiah as a righteous king prefigures Christ.

22:13 Words of prophecy, not only from Elijah and Elisha but from Moses (Deut. 11:26–28), show that God judges in accordance with his purpose and his righteousness. This righteousness is supremely manifested in Christ, both when in his innocence he bears sin (2 Cor. 5:21) and when he comes to judge the world (Acts 17:31).

22:20 See 23:30. Because of his righteousness and humility, Josiah receives a blessing. But unlike Christ (Gal. 3:13–14), he is unable to reverse the impending curse and punishment that will come to his people (see 2 Kings 23:26–27).

24:2 See notes on 21:8 and 22:13.

25:9 God’s righteous judgment falls because of accumulated sins (23:26–27; 24:2–4). The judgment also destroys God’s own house, prefiguring the judgment that will fall on Christ, whose body is the temple (John 2:19–21Gal. 3:13–14).

25:27 The provision for the king of Judah, in the line of David, indicates that God still remembers his promise to David (2 Sam. 7:16) and anticipates the eventual coming of Jesus the Messiah through the line of Jehoiachin (also called Jeconiah, 1 Chron. 3:16Matt. 1:11–12).

1 Chronicles

David as the righteous leader and king prefigures Christ the king, not only in his rule over the people of God but in his role in preparing to build the temple. First Chronicles looks back on the faithfulness of God to his people in the entire period from Adam (1:1) to David (3:1) and even beyond (3:10–24; 9:1–34), indicating the steadfastness of God’s purpose in preparing for the coming of the Messiah as the offspring of Adam (1:1Gen. 3:15Luke 3:38), offspring of Abraham (1 Chron. 1:28Gal. 3:16), and offspring of David (1 Chron. 3:1; 17:11, 14Luke 3:23–38Acts 13:23).

1:1 God promises victory over Satan by the offspring of the woman (Gen. 3:15) and of Abraham (Gen. 17:7; see notes on Gen. 3:15 and 12:1). The line of chosen offspring goes from Adam through Seth and Noah (1 Chron. 1:4) to Abraham (vv. 27–28), Isaac (v. 34), and Israel (v. 34; 2:1), earlier called Jacob (Gen. 32:27–28). It will culminate in Christ (Matt. 1:1–16Gal. 3:16).

2:1 The line of chosen offspring goes from Israel to David and includes the blessing of multiplication of offspring in the form of the 12 tribes (see Gen. 13:16; 15:5). See note on 1 Chron. 1:1.

3:1 The line of the Messiah comes through King David (2 Sam. 7:16Matt. 1:1, 6; see note on 1 Chron. 1:1).

3:10 Solomon and his offspring are a stage in the fulfillment of the promise to David for his offspring (2 Sam. 7:16). The offspring ultimately lead to Christ (Matt. 1:1–16; see note on 1 Chron. 1:1).

4:1 After recording the Messianic line of David, which will lead to Christ (see note on 3:10), Chronicles gives the record for Judah, the tribe of David. The recording of individual names and families underlines their inclusion in the promise to Abraham concerning blessing, land, and fellowship with God (Gen. 17:4–8). It prefigures the blessing (Gal. 3:14), land (Rom. 4:13Heb. 11:16; 12:22Rev. 21:1), and fellowship with God (Rom. 5:1Gal. 3:26–29) that come from union with Christ the greater David. God has enrolled our names in his book of life (Rev. 13:8; 17:8; 20:15; see John 10:3, 14Eph. 1:4).

5:1 The record of Reuben, Gad (v. 11), and Manasseh (v. 23) indicates their continued inclusion among God’s people as offspring of Abraham and Israel (2:1–2). It answers doubts that might arise because of the location of their land east of the Jordan (Numbers 32Josh. 13:8–32; 22:24–29). The reassurance prefigures the guarantee given to Christians (2 Cor. 1:22Eph. 1:13–14). See note on 1 Chron. 4:1.

6:49 The special list for Aaron the priest and for the tribe of Levi, which indicates some of their priestly privileges before God, prefigures the priestly privileges given to Christians through Christ the final high priest (Heb. 7:23–8:2; 10:19–22).

7:1 Other tribes descending from Israel (2:1–2) are briefly listed. See note on 4:1.

8:33 Special focus is given to Saul, because he was king of Israel (10:141 Sam. 10:1). But he was superseded by David (1 Sam. 16:1, 122 Sam. 7:151 Chron. 10:13–14; 17:13), whose line of kings leads forward to Christ the king (Matt. 1:6–16).

9:2 The enrollment of names of returned exiles indicates God’s continued faithfulness to the offspring of Israel. It prefigures God’s enrollment and faithfulness to those who belong to Christ the Israelite (Gal. 3:14, 16, 28–29; see note on 1 Chron. 4:1).

10:14 The movement of kingship to David is the beginning of the line of kingly offspring leading to Christ (17:11, 14Matt. 1:6–16).

11:3 David is established as king in fulfillment of God’s purpose (v. 2), prefiguring the establishment of Christ the son of David as the final king (Ps. 2:6–12Acts 13:33Eph. 1:20–22).

12:23 The unification of God’s people under David, and their strength for war, prefigures the unification and spiritual strength under Christ the king (Eph. 4:1–16; 6:10–20).

13:10 See note on 2 Sam. 6:7. When the Levites take the appropriate role (Ex. 25:14Num. 4:151 Chron. 15:2, 13–15), the ark is brought up safely (1 Chron. 15:26).

13:12 The supreme holiness of God, and his reaction to the approach of sinners, produces fear. The resolution comes through Christ’s propitiation, which permanently answers God’s wrath (Rom. 3:20–26; 5:1).

14:15 God fights with David against Israel’s enemies, prefiguring Christ defeating Satan and his hosts (Matt. 12:28–29Luke 10:18–19John 12:31Rev. 19:11–21; 20:7–10).

15:2 Unlike Uzzah (13:10), the Levites bring up the ark safely, because they are following God’s instructions (Ex. 25:14Num. 4:15). The importance of following God’s way prefigures the one way to God opened through Christ (John 14:6Heb. 10:19–22).

15:16 David and the singers are involved in writing and singing many of the Psalms (see 1 Chron. 16:8–36and parallels in the Psalms: Ps. 96:1–13; 105:1–15; 106:47–48). They prefigure the role of Christ in leading his people in singing praise to God for climactic salvation (Heb. 2:12; 13:15Rev. 19:6–8).

16:4 See note on 15:16.

16:8 See Ps. 105:1–15. Songs of praise are to be sung repeatedly, not only to give praise to God, but to remind people of his excellence and to anticipate the surpassing display of his excellence when Christ comes. See note on 1 Chron. 15:16.

16:23 See Ps. 96:1–13 and note on 1 Chron. 16:8.

16:35 See Ps. 106:47–48 and note on 1 Chron. 16:8.

17:4 To underline the importance of Davidic kingship as leading to Christ, Chronicles records the all-important covenant with David given in 2 Sam. 7:5–16. See note on 2 Sam. 7:12.

17:16 David’s marveling over God’s grace prefigures the marveling over the grace that has come in Christ (John 1:16Eph. 2:7–9).

18:6 The subduing of Israel’s enemies prefigures Christ winning victory over Satan and his hosts (see note on 14:15).

18:14 The coming of justice prefigures the justice of the Messiah (Isa. 9:6–7; 42:1–42 Cor. 5:10Rev. 20:11–15).

19:2 See note on 2 Sam. 10:2.

20:1 Chronicles, unlike the parallel in 2 Samuel 11, omits mention of David’s sin with Bathsheba, highlighting more effectively ways in which David’s kingship points positively forward to the triumphs of Christ as final king.

20:8 David’s victory over Goliath in 1 Samuel 17 is one of a series of victories that destroy terrifying enemies of God’s people. The victories prefigure the victory of Christ and his people (Matt. 12:28–29;Luke 10:18–19John 12:31Rev. 2:7, 11, 17, 26; 12:11; 19:11–21; 20:7–10).

21:7 See note on 2 Sam. 24:1.

21:17 See note on 2 Sam. 24:17.

22:1 The selection of the site for Solomon’s temple takes place according to God’s word through Gad the prophet (21:18). Once the temple is built, it will be the exclusive place for atonement and approach to God (Deuteronomy 12), prefiguring Christ as the final one who brings atonement and opens the way to God (John 14:6Heb. 10:19–22).

22:9 Solomon prefigures Christ as prince of peace, who opens the way to peace with God (Rom. 5:1–10).

23:26 See Num. 4:5–15. God inspires David to make a change in the duties of the Levites, corresponding to the change in the house of God. The service of the Levites prefigures the service of Christ as high priest to God (Heb. 7:23–8:6) and subordinately the service of Christians (Rom. 12:1Eph. 4:1–16Heb. 13:15).

24:7 The priests are a special group within the tribe of Levi, chosen to minister in the sanctuary (Numbers 18). The priesthood prefigures Christ the great high priest (Heb. 7:23–8:6). The duties rotate to the different divisions (see Luke 1:5, 8), indicating that no one priest is permanent, until the coming of Christ the everlasting priest (Heb. 7:23–24).

25:1 See note on 15:16. The attention to arrangements for singing prefigures the ordering of the church’s worship through the power of the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12Eph. 2:22; 5:18–21).

26:1 The gatekeepers protect access to the presence of God in the temple (Num. 18:7, 22), prefiguring the one way of access to God through Christ (John 10:7; 14:6). Church discipline, exercised under the authority of Christ (1 Cor. 5:4–5), warns the unrepentant of their danger.

26:20 The care for God’s gifts prefigures the guarantee of the inheritance of eternal life in Christ (1 Pet. 1:4–5) and the advice to lay up treasure in heaven (Matt. 6:19–34; see 2 Cor. 9:6–15). Money given for the needs of God’s people is to be carefully handled (2 Cor. 8:20–21).

27:1 Arrangements for the military prefigure the spiritual war fought under Christ’s command (Eph. 6:10–20; see note on 1 Chron. 14:15).

28:6 See the promise to David in 17:11–14, now being fulfilled. See note on 2 Sam. 7:12.

28:19 The temple is built in accordance with God’s instructions, just as the tabernacle was (see note onEx. 36:10).

28:20 The empowering of God is essential, prefiguring the centrality of God’s power in building the church, the new temple (1 Cor. 3:16Eph. 2:20–22).

28:21 The previous arrangements of various divisions of the Levites and the people (chs. 23–27) have all been for the purpose of aiding in the service of the house of God. They prefigure God’s planning for the building of the church as temple (1 Cor. 3:16Eph. 2:20–22) and the new Jerusalem as final temple (Rev. 21:22–27).

29:6 The generous offering is like that for the tabernacle (Ex. 35:4–36:7). It prefigures the generosity of Christ (see note on Ex. 35:21).

29:18 Wholehearted commitment comes ultimately with the perfection of Christ (Heb. 10:7–10) and the change of the heart that he works in us in the new covenant (Heb. 10:16–17).

2 Chronicles

Solomon as a wise king and temple builder prefigures Christ the king and temple builder. After Solomon the line of Davidic kings continues, leading forward to Christ the great descendant of David (Matt. 1:6–16). But many of the later kings go astray from God, and they and the people suffer for it, showing the need for Christ as the perfect king. Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 29–32) and Josiah (chs. 34–35) as righteous kings prefigure Christ. Second Chronicles has parallels in 1–2 Kings but focuses on the southern kingdom (Judah) and the line of David, and it shows focused concern for the temple and its worship, anticipating the fulfillment of temple and worship with the coming of Christ (John 2:19–21; 4:20–26Eph. 2:20–22;Rev. 21:22–22:5).

1:10 See note on 1 Kings 3:9. Wisdom is needed to build the temple (1 Chron. 29:12 Chron. 2:6, 12).

2:3 See note on 1 Kings 5:8.

2:13 See note on 1 Kings 7:14.

3:1 See note on 1 Kings 6:2. The location for the temple was appointed in 1 Chron. 22:1 (see note on 1 Chron. 22:1).

4:1 The altar is twice as large as the one for the tabernacle (Ex. 27:1–8), indicating the more abundant provision for atonement. See note on Ex. 27:1.

4:7 There are ten lampstands instead of the one in the tabernacle (Ex. 25:31–39), indicating the more abundant provision of light. See notes on Ex. 25:37 and 1 Kings 6:2.

5:14 See note on 1 Kings 8:11.

6:6 The selection of Jerusalem fulfills the plan given through Moses in Deuteronomy 12. It prefigures the appointment of Christ as the one way of salvation (John 14:6Heb. 5:5–10).

6:15 See note on 1 Kings 8:24.

6:21 See note on 1 Kings 8:30.

7:1 The miraculous approval by God is like what happens with Elijah in 1 Kings 18:39 (see note).

7:2 The glory of the Lord signifies the magnificence of his presence, prefiguring Christ’s presence. See 5:14and note on 1 Kings 8:11.

7:20 See note on 1 Kings 9:8.

8:5 Solomon takes care to provide security against foreign enemies, performing one of the important duties of ancient kings and prefiguring the spiritual security given through Christ the king (John 10:28–29; see Rev. 21:24–27; 22:3).

8:14 David’s instructions are found in 1 Chronicles 23–27. See the note on 1 Chron. 28:21.

9:1 See note on 1 Kings 10:1.

9:22 Solomon’s riches and wisdom prefigure the riches and wisdom of Christ the king (Eph. 1:18Col. 2:31 Cor. 1:30).

10:15 See note on 1 Kings 12:15.

11:14 The Levites were distributed among the tribes (